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EU to triple funding for rail research

The European Commission is to triple its funding for rail research and development after formally adopting the industry initiative 'Shift2Rail'. Eighty companies are already supporting the 'Shift2Rail' scheme which will work to double the capacity of Europe's rail network, increase reliability by up to 50% and halve the life-cycle costs of rail. Close to Euros 1bn will be ploughed into the seven-year rail research and innovation programme after the EU confirmed that it would put forward Euros 450M between 2014-2020 to meet Euros 470M already committed by the rail industry itself. Research will focus on developing new trains and traffic management systems to boost capacity and reliability, improving existing infrastructure, developing better integrated ticketing and journey planning systems and improving inter-modal freight solutions. Companies who have already signed up to the initiative include Alstom, Ansaldo STS, Bombardier, Siemens, Thales and CAF as well as Trafikverket and Network Rail.

www.globalrailnews.com. 16 Dec. 2013. http://www.globalrailnews.com/2013/12/16/eu-to-triple-funding-for-rail-research/

Network Rail awards infrastructure framework contracts

Network Rail has begun its infrastructure investment plans for London and the south east for the next five years by nominating four preferred suppliers for contracts worth a total of £1.2bn. The framework agreements, which will come into force on 1 April 2014, will cover almost half Network Rail's £2.5bn workbank for the 2014-19 funding period in the region, delivering longer platforms for longer trains on key commuter routes, station enhancements, new footbridges to improve accessibility and upgrades to bridges, embankments and tunnels to increase the resilience of the infrastructure in some of the most intensely-used parts of Britain's rail network. The agreements have been designed to encourage increased collaboration between Network Rail and its partners, and will incorporate shared objectives to enable both sides to share in risk and reward and to incentivise safe, efficient project delivery.

www.globalrailnews.com. 17 Dec. 2013. http://www.globalrailnews.com/2013/12/17/network-rail-awards-infrastructure-framework-contracts/

Siemens delivers new high-speed Sapsan train to Russia

Siemens has delivered the first of a new fleet of Sapsan trains, which will double the number of high-speed units operating in Russia. The new high-speed trains are part of a Euros 600M order placed in 2011 which also included a 30-year maintenance contract. Siemens has said that the new vehicles, which were built in Krefeld, will eventually be transported to the company's Metallostroy depot near Saint Petersburg. Another train is expected to be delivered by the end of the month, with all eight vehicles due to arrive in Russia by the middle of next year. Although similar to the German ICE 3, the Sapsan, which has operated on the Moscow-St Petersburg and Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod routes since 2009, is actually 33 centimetres wider to operate on Russia broad gauge network.

www.globalrailnews.com. 19 Dec. 2013. http://www.globalrailnews.com/2013/12/19/siemens-delivers-new-high-speed-sapsan-train-to-russia/

The 30-year view

Network Rail has published four market studies that will enable it to plan for the future. The studies will help to determine what kind of services will be needed to achieve three important outputs: enabling economic growth, reducing carbon and the transport sector's impact on the environment, and improving the quality of life for commuters. While the studies predict demand figures and the kind of services needed to deal with that demand, they do not suggest infrastructure improvements. Covers highlights of the studies dealing with London and the south east, freight, long distance and regional urban.


Colas Rail buys on-track tramping machines business from Amey

Colas Rail has expanded its rail services operations by acquiring Amey's on-track tramping machines business. The £5M deal comes as Amey focuses on its core offerings of asset management, rail projects, metro services, track renewals, signaling and electrification to deliver ambitious growth plans. (Item contains no further information.)


A vision for the future of the Tube

Mayor of London, Boris Johnson and the manageing director of London Underground have set out their vision for the future of the Tube. This includes a new 24-hour 'Night tube' service at weekends and more staff visible and available at stations to help customers buy the right ticket, plan their journeys and keep them safe and secure. Planned improvements will: make the network more accessible; introduce more and better ticket machines; introduce Wi-Fi coverage to all remaining below-ground Tube stations by the end of 2014; and roll out contactless bank card payment technology on the Tube network from next year. From 2015 LU intends to opeate stations in four different categories - desatination stations, metro stations, gateway stations and local stations.


Funding awarded to innovative rolling stock research projects

The 'Radical Train' contest was launched by the Railway Safety Standards Board’s Enabling Innovation Team earlier in the year and invited organisations to submit designs and concepts that could transform train production in the UK. The first four of eight rolling stock projects have been awarded. They are: Revolution VLR Consortium (Very Light Rail) consisting of TDI (Europe) (Transport Design International), Unipart Rail, Warwick Manufacturing Group centre HVM Catapult, Trelleborg PPL, Allectra and GKN Land Systems for their low carbon, very-lightweight whole passenger railcar demonstrator; Holdtrade, Transnet, Huddersfield University and HBA for their radical freight bogie concept; Thales and NewRail for their active adhesion monitoring project; and a confidential investment in emissions reduction and fuel efficiency technology.


CSX to trial natural gas locomotive

GE Transportation is to work alongside CSX Corporation to undertake a pilot study into the use of Liquefied Natural Gas to power the operator's fleet of Evolution Series locomotives. GE will retrofit CSX locomotives with its NextFuel Natural Gas kits which will allow the vehicles to run on both diesel and natural gas - a more efficient and more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional fuel sources. Retrofits will first be carried out on Evolution Series locomotives and, if successful, could be rolled out to other classes.


Russia to invest RUB 1.2 trillion on rail infrastructure between 2014-2016

Russian Railways is to invest 1.2 trillion rubles in improving its infrastructure and rolling stock between 2014 and 2016. Projects earmarked for investment in the next three years include the Baikal-Amur Mainline and Trans-Siberian Express, upgrades to the Mezhdurechensk-Taishet freight line, improvements to rail infrastructure around Moscow and the construction of a new line to bypass Krasnodar hub. Across the entire network more than 9,000 km of railway will be reconstructed between 2014-2016 and more than 1,500 new locomotives are expected to be procured.


Interest growing in private investment for U.S. rail projects

Federal Railroad Administration deputy administrator Karen Hedlund told attendees of the American Public Transportation Association conference that state-of-good-repair projects are good candidates for public-private-partnerships, but the private sector needs clarity of timeframes. She added that transit agencies might offer stipends for unsolicited proposals to 'telegraph serious intent' about P3s. David Narefsky, a Mayer Brown partner, said that, unlike highway projects, on which concessionaires can reap toll revenues, transit projects would depend on availability payments.

Engineering News-Record, vol. 271, no. 12, 21/28 Oct. 2013. p.20.

Think international, think commercial

Presents comment which says that the central role of infrastructure managers in delivering the vision of a Single European Railway Area was underlined by a recent workshop organised by the European Commission. Vice President Siim Kallas has long believed that complete vertical separation and on-rail competition between train operators is the best way to make the rail sector more responsive to market demand. However, the Commission has shied away from compulsory unbundling in the Fourth Railway Package, relying instead on requirements for greater transparency and increased regulatory oversight of state-owned holding groups in particular. Notes that France has brought together RFF, SNCF Infra and DCF into a single organisation to be known as SNCF Réseau. Says that EU investment needs to be channeled into creating genuine international corridors that will facilitate international flows.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 11, Nov. 2013. p.3.

PRASA fleet renewal signed

Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa has signed a R51bn contract with the Alstom-led Gibela joint venture on October 14 covering the supply of 3,600 new EMU cars. These will form 600 trainsets to be delivered in 2015-25. In addition, Gibela will provide technical support and supply spare parts over an 18-year period. The 1067 mm gauge X'Trapolis Mega trainsets are derived from Alstom's X'Trapolis family and are initially designed to run at up to 120 km/h.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 11, Nov. 2013. p.7.

Rennes Line B contract signed

Reports that Siemens has signed a Euros 178M turnkey contract to supply railway systems and provide project management services for Rennes metro Line B, the city's second driverless route. Siemens France will supply track and electrification systems, 19 two-car rubber-tyred trainsets, Trainguard MT CBTC signalling, telecoms including track-train radio and video transmission, platform screen doors, a control centre and depot equipment.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 11, Nov. 2013. p.15.

Manchester's second city crossing to go ahead

The government has granted Transport for Greater Manchester legal powers to build a second Metrolink light rail route through the centre of Manchester. Intended to relieve pressure on the heavily-used existing route, the 1.6km second city crossing would run from an enlarged St Peter's square stop via a new stop at Exchange Square to rejoin the existing line near Victoria Station. TfGM intends to call tenders shortly, with construction to start in January 2014 for completion in winter 2016-17. Separately, the 3.4km, four-stop extension to Ashton-under-Lyne opened on October 9, ahead of schedule.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 11, Nov. 2013. p.16.

Inspiro trains in Riyadh

Siemens has announced details of the trainsets and control technology it is to supply for Riyadh metro lines 1 and 2. Siemens' Euros 1.5bn share of the BACS consortium's Euros 7.5bn contract to build two of the six planned lines includes rolling stock, signalling and electrification. Siemens is to supply 74 Inspiro cars in two-car and four-car sets. The standard gauge trainsets will have aluminium bodyshells and a top speed of 90km/h. Separately, the FAST consortium has awarded a WS Atkins-Typsa joint venture a contract to design lines 4, 5 and 6.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 11, Nov. 2013. p.16.


Bombardier Transportation has appointed Tata Consultancy Services to manage the IT infrastructure for its newly-opened data centre. (Item contains no further information.)

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 11, Nov. 2013. p.18.

Network Rail

Network Rail has awarded Balfour Beatty a contract to install 25 kV 50 Hz electrification between Airport Junction and Maidenhead by 2016 as part of the Crossrail and Great Western electrification projects. Vinci Construction is to upgrade 13 stations along the route in 2014-128 for use by Crossrail services. (Item contains no further information.)

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 11, Nov. 2013. p.18.

Shift2Rail nears critical deadline

The formal proposal authorising EU funding for the Shift2Rail joint technology initiative being promoted by the European rail industry is due to be finalised by the European Commission in November. Discussions are under way in Brussels in a bid to smooth its legislative progress, with funding and governance at the heart of matters. Reports on a number of viewpoints presented at dinner, hosted by Amalia Sartori, Chair of the European Parliament's Research & Energy Committee, at which MEPs and officials could be briefed on the project.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 11, Nov. 2013. p.46.

Tested to destruction

A bridge replacement project in Sweden has provided the opportunity for research into the strength of aging railway bridges, as part of the UIC-led MAINLINE infrastructure research programme. One of the workstreams in this FP7-funded project is investigating the feasibility of life extension and increasing the permitted axleload on existing railway bridges. The 32m steel span truss bridge across the River Abyälven, dating from 1957, was replaced by a new steel beam bridge in September 2012. The old truss was placed on new abutments beside the river for subsequent use by researchers from Lulea University of Technology and Trafikverket.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 11, Nov. 2013. p.47.

Network Rail announces major rail deal

Network Rail has agreed a five-year deal which will see Tata Steel's site in Scunthorpe manufacture 95% of Britain's new rails. Tata Steel will supply around 140,000 tonnes of rail each year under the agreement, which also includes suppliers ArcelorMittal and VoestAlpine. The framework contract, which features an option to extend for a further five years, will include orders for CEN60 and CEN 56 rail types, conductor rail and old-style bullhead. Throughout control period 5, Network Rail is scheduled to complete £10bn of core renewals and £10bn of enhancements.

www.globalrailnews.com. 21 Oct. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/lluehbz

New EU strategy triples transport infrastructure budget to Euros 26bn

The European Commission has published a map detailing the nine key transport corridors that it believes will radically improve the current 'patchwork' of road and rail links. The EU said it would triple the transport budget between 2014-2020 to Euros 26bn to realise its ambitions of a better connected Europe. Although much of the infrastructure that makes up the new routes already exists, investment is needed to complete the 'missing links' and relieve bottlenecks across the network. Particular emphasis has been put on improving east-west links, with almost half of the funding (Euros 11.3bn) going to countries receiving cohesion funding.

www.globalrailnews.com. 18 Oct. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/lao9l2d

Premium rail performance and rail life extension under heavy-axle-load revenue service environments

An update of the results from US premium rail performance and rail life extensions tests, carried out on the eastern (West Virginia) and western (Nebraska) mega sites by the Transportation Technology Center Inc., is presented. The original tests have been extended to include maintenance strategies (long-term effects of gauge-face lubrication, top-of-rail friction control and grinding practices).

Railway Track and Structures, vol.109, no.10. Oct.2013. pp.15-18.

The trials of track inspection

Pitfalls facing track inspectors are reported. Companies reporting their operational challenges in the USA are Balfour Beatty Rail, ENSCO, GREX, Harsco Rail, Holland, MRail, NxGen Rail Services and Rail Radar.

Railway Track and Structures, vol.109, no.10. Oct.2013. pp.40-45.

Could this be the Tube train of the future?

A new exhibition at The Crystal in Royal Victoria Docks, entitled 'Going Underground: Our journey to the future', explores some of the new technology that could be used on the London Underground network in the near future. Siemens has been exhibiting the futuristic concept Inspiro tube train that it hopes could eventually be serving passengers on the Bakerloo and Piccadilly lines. Based on the EVO design which was unveiled at Railtex in 2011, Siemens has said that Inspiro would be 30% more energy efficient and 20% lighter than similar metros. The exhibition also features other concepts and technology designed to revolutionise electronic ticketing, passenger information and station management systems.

www.globalrailnews.com. 4 Oct. 2013.

UK government reshuffles transport team

Reports on the reshuffle at the Department of Transport. Simon Burns, Minister of State, had already tendered his resignation so that he could stand for the post of Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons. He was responsible for HS2 and had only been at the DfT since September 2012. Norman Baker, the longest serving member of the Transport team having been in post since May 2010, moves over to the Home Office. As Parliamentary Under Secretary, he looked after both rail and tram issues. The newly-appointed include Baroness Kramer as Minister of State, and Robert Goodwill as Parliamentary Under Secretary. Robert Goodwill is MP for Scarborough and Whitby and has moved across from the Treasury where he was Lord Commissioner. The two new appointments join Secretary of State Patrick McLoughlin and Parliamentary Under Secretary Stephen Hammond. Both were appointed in September 2012. Up to now, Stephen Hammond has primarily looked after roads. However, the new portfolios still have to be announced.

www.globalrailnews.com. 8 Oct. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/mjn25zb

Network Rail consultancy lands first contract

Network Rail Consulting has been awarded its first contract as safety assessor for the design and construction of Sydney's North West Rail Link. It will oversee the Tunnel & Station Civil Works Contract and the Surface & Viaduct Civil Works Contract, and advise the project's Operations, Trains and Systems Contract. The fully-automated North West Rail Link will also include eight new stations, a 4km elevated 'skytrain' viaduct between Bella Vista and Rouse Hill, an upgraded 4km Epping to Chatswood Rail Link and modernisation works to a further 14 kilometres of railway. Network Rail Consulting was launched in 2012 as the organisation sought to expand internationally, offering its expertise in policy development, procurement and re-structuring, strategic planning, asset management, operations maintenance, timetabling and maintenance programmes, and a project management service for capital projects.

www.globalrailnews.com. 8 Oct. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/mpaoj9n

Siemens to supply 74 Inspiro metros to Riyadh

Siemens is to build 74 Inspiro trains for Riyadh's new metro system - the biggest project of its kind in the world. As well as supplying rolling stock, it will deliver the electrification and signalling system as part of the BACS consortium, which is building two of the six planned driverless metro lines for the city. The Riyadh Metro is the most ambitious urban rail project in the world, with around 175km of new track and 85 new stations expected to be built in the next few years. The Inspiro, which will be built in two and four-car configurations, will feature higher-capacity air conditioning systems than usual to cope with the extreme heat. The bogies, traction drive, brakes and doors will also all be fitted with special seals and filters to keep sand out.

www.globalrailnews.com. 10 Oct. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/ljnkrly

Maglev train raises hopes

Comments on JR Tokai's plans to run the super-fast magnetically levitated train service between Tokyo and Nagoya beginning in 2027. Says that the new system will make Japan's transport infrastructure less vulnerable to earthquakes and tsunamis and could also promote exports of Japanese maglev technology. However, the project will face a number of technical challenges, including the construction of the tunnels which make up 86% of the entire route. There are also concerns about the commercial viability of the project.

The Nikkei Weekly, vol. 51, no. 2,612, 30 Sep. 2013. p.27.

South Africa orders 600 trains in order worth Euros 3.8bn

South Africa's rail authority PRASA has agreed an order with an Alstom-led joint venture for 600 new trains. The new passenger trains, which will amount to 3,600 cars, will be delivered between 2015 and 2025 as part of a major rolling stock renewal across the country. PRASA's rolling stock programme will see more than 7000 new trains enter service on South Africa's railways over the next 20 years thanks to an investment of Euros 9.1 bn. Gibela - a joint venture between Alstom, New Africa Rail and Ubumbano Rail - will provide technical support and spare parts for 18 years. The first phase of the project will involve Alstom supplying the X'Trapolis Mega EMU, which has been specially designed for us on South Africa's narrow gauge system.

www.globalrailnews.com. 14 Oct. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/mfjwx66

Tenders launched for $1.6bn light rail system in Sydney

Sydney has started its search for the consortium that will design and build a new 12km light rail network for the city. The New South Wales Government has announced that the procurement process for two major contracts, covering the construction of the $1.6bn system, is now underway. Companies are being invited to submit expressions of interest for the South East Light Rail line design, construction, operation and maintenance contract and the operation and maintenance of the Inner West Light Rail network. A second contract then covers the preliminary works for the planned route. Once each submission has been analysed, a shortlist of interested parties will be asked to put together detailed bids for each contract.

www.globalrailnews.com. 16 Oct. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/lydflja

Network Rail partners with Chiltern to deliver new Oxford-London line

Network Rail and Chiltern Railways have formed a partnership to oversee the construction and development of a new railway line between Oxford and London. The team will manage work to upgrade a section of line between Oxford and Bicester, as well as the construction of a new 1km stretch of railway connecting Bicester with the Chiltern Main Line. As well as the new line to London Marylebone station, the upgraded section of track will form part of the East West Rail project - a scheme which seeks to provide better rail connections between the east and west of England by upgrading and replacing sections of track between Oxford and Bedford.

www.globalrailnews.com. 9 Sep. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/nw9fpoo

Contracts totalling Euros 300m awarded for Grand Paris Express line

A series of major contracts, worth an estimated Euros 300M, have been awarded, paving the way for the construction of a new 100km orbital railway in Paris. The red line (line 15), one of four new lines being built as part of the Grand Paris Express project, will run around the outskirts of the city, allowing passengers to travel between Parisian suburbs without going through the city centre. The entire project will involve the construction of two brand new lines and extension of two existing routes. A consortium led by Systra will oversee the design and construction of the first phase of line 15 - a 21km line between Noisy-Champs and Villejuif Louis Aragon. Engineering consultancy Setec will manage the delivery of a 12km section between Villejuif Louis Aragon and Pont de Sevres. A third consortium of Artelia, Arcadis and BG Consulting has been appointed to project manage the entire programme.

www.globalrailnews.com. 9 Sep. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/pkat53s

Riyadh metro contracts awarded

Reports that Arriyadh Development Authority has awarded three turnkey contracts for the construction of a 176 km six-line driverless metro network in Riyadh. The BACS consortium led by Bechtel and including Almabani General Contractors, Consolidated Contractors Company and Siemens is to build Lines 1 and 2, totalling 63.3 km. This contract is valued at $9.45bn. Arriyadh New Mobility will build Line 3, which will be the longest route at 40.7 km, under a $5.21bn contract. The FAST consortium led by FCC and including Samsung, Alstom, Strukton, Freyssinet Saudi Arabia, Typsa and Setec is to build Lines 4, 5 and 6, totalling 64.6 km. Alstom's Euros 1.2bn share of the contract includes supplying 69 two-car Metropolis automated trainsets, along with Urbalius signalling, Appitrack mechanised tracklaying technology and HESOP energy-saving substations.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 9, Sep. 2013. p.14.

Croxley Rail Link approved

The government has granted legal powers for construction of the Croxley Rail Link project to extend London Underground's Metropolitan Line to Watford Junction. The £118M project would partly use a disused railway alignment. A new viaduct would be built over the Grand Union Canal, along with two new stations. The line would join the current London Overground route south of Watford High Street, enabling trains to reach Watford Junction over existing track. Construction is due to start in 2014, with opening scheduled for 2016.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 9, Sep. 2013. p.16.

Railcare in administration

Reports that UK rolling stock repair and refurbishment company Railcare, which operates workshops at Springburn and Wolverton, was placed in administration on July 31, after cash flow issues and the failure of take-over talks with Knorr-Bremse. Three partners from BDO were appointed joint administrators, and were 'liaising with customers to understand their exact requirements, so trading may continue' while a buyer is sought.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 9, Sep. 2013. p.20.

Fast freight can be very profitable

Shippers in the US are spending $28bn a year on long-distance road transport, partly due to the need for faster deliveries. There is significant potential for rail if it can offer a time-competitive service. Examines the case for higher speed freight trains. Team-driven trucks achieve an average speed of close to 90 km/h. This is comparable to the average speed of US passenger trains and is the market that is readily identifiable for higher speed freight trains. Says that the case for faster freight trains really depends on identifying and tapping a 'secondary value', such as increased retail shelf life for perishable foods, an urgency of delivery as for spare parts or business documents, or for the expedited movement of a limited number of products that form important links in a logistics, distribution or manufacturing chain.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 9, Sep. 2013. pp.51-54.

Winning the battle for high-value freight

Initial findings from the FP7-supported SPECTRUM research project have said that, given the right technology, the right distances and the right market conditions, up to 1.9bn tonnes a year of lower-density higher-value freight now moving by road in Europe could be switched to rail. Entitled 'Solutions and Processes to Enhance the Competitiveness of Transport by Rail in Unexploited Markets, the project brings together 20 partners from across the rail industry and the freight forwarding sector, under the leadership of NewRail - Newcastle Centre for Railway research. SPECTRUM has been looking at the LDHV market and the technical and operational concepts which could facilitate a shift of time-sensitive traffic from road to rail.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 9, Sep. 2013. pp.56-58.

Redefining the European freight wagon

Reports on the 5L project to improve the competitiveness of rail freight by developing the 'Innovative Railway Wagon 2030'. 5L is being led by a group of railway operators, shippers, wagon owners and suppliers. The aim is to move away from today's mostly archaic freight wagons to a highly-productive, environmentally friendly and economic vehicle suitable for use across Europe. Details five factors that would influence the successful introduction of a new wagon design - low noise, light weight, long running, logistics capable and life-cycle cost-oriented.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 9, Sep. 2013. pp.60-63.

DD ENV 13481-6:2002 Railway applications. Track. Performance requirements for fastening systems. Special fastening systems for attenuation of vibration. (This standard is withdrawn as it is no longer relevant.)
[BSI] Update Standards. Sept.2013. p.23.
DD ENV 13481-8:2002 Railway applications. Track. Performance requirements for fastening systems. Fastening systems for track with heavy axle loads. (This standard is withdrawn as it is no longer relevant.)
[BSI] Update Standards. Sept.2013. p.23.

Visual algorithms for automatic detection of squat flaws in railway rails

An algorithm for the detection of squat surface flaws, which cannot be detected by ultrasonic methods, is detailed and illustrated. A wavelet transform extracts the rail from the background in combination with a Gabor filter bank and a support vector machine. The sequential feature selection method was used to discriminate between squat and squatless areas. A 97% detection rate was achieved.

Insight, vol.55, no.7. July 2013. pp.353-359.

Britain to test battery-powered train

A Greater Anglia Class 379 is to become Britain's first battery-powered train as part of a study into the feasibility of extending the technology across the network. Network Rail is working alongside Bombardier, the Enabling Innovation Team at the RSSB and Greater Anglia to conduct the trial. The Class 379, which will be fitted with both lithium phosphate and hot sodium nickel salt batteries, will first undergo tests at Old Dalby and then move to an electrified branch line on the Anglia route, depending on the success of the initial trials, with its pantograph down. Once complete at the end of 2014, the EMU will be stripped of its modifications and returned to regular passenger operation.


Melbourne-Sydney high-speed rail line gets government backing

The Australian government has committed its support and $52M to developing plans for the country's first high-speed rail line. Announcing the government's decision to fully-adopt recommendations set out by the High Speed Rail Advisory Group Report in its 'On Track: Implementing High Speed Rail in Australia' report, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd said that he would be supporting the first section of the line which will link Sydney and Melbourne via Canberra. More than $50M will be earmarked to protect the preferred route of the line and a new High Speed Rail Authority will be established to oversee the project's development. Infrastructure Australia will now explore financing options for the line, including PPP opportunities to cover the estimated $114bn cost of the full Melbourne-Brisbane system.

www.globalrailnews.com. 28 Aug. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/q8mb579

Abellio ScotRail issues tender for up to 400 new electric trains

Abellio ScotRail has issued a tender notice for the supply of up to 400 new electric trains with the added option of maintenance. The contract, for which tenders have to be in by November 16, 2013, covers the design, manufacture, testing, commissioning and introduction of the new fleet of trains. According to the tender documents the order will be worth between £100M and £600M with a duration of no more than 132 months from the date the contract is awarded. The first train is expected to be ready to enter service by April 1, 2016, a year after the current franchise, operated by FirstGroup, expires. (Item contains little further information.)

www.globalrailnews.com. 23 Aug. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/qejvrbo

Rail emerging as long-term North American crude option

Initially thought of as a stopgap for transporting North American crude oil production until new pipelines could be built, the relatively short time needed to recover capital costs of rail infrastructure has opened the possibility that rail transportation rates could be reduced enough to keep railroads competitive and profitable, even compared to new pipelines. Rail can rapidly enter markets because the primary new infrastructure required is transloading terminals, which typically have short construction lead times of just 12-18 months. Scalable rail operations also have ready access to large fleet resources including locomotives, rail cars, rail crews, additional track, and other facilities that can be put in place cheaply and quickly to handle rapid expansion.

Oil & Gas Journal, vol. 111.8, 5 Aug. 2013. pp.91-92,95.

Scientists comment on train crash in Galicia, Spain

Thursday 25th July 2013

Round-up comments

Professor Roger Kemp, a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, said:

“From press reports, the train was approaching Santiago de Compostela on a new high speed line. A few kilometres from the city centre the track goes through a 600m tunnel, passes under the Autoestrada do Atlantico and joins the old line before reaching the main station.

“From on-line maps, it appears that the track at this point has a curve radius of about 500 metres. UK practice would be that the speed limit round such a curve would be between 70km/h and 100km/h depending on how much the track is banked. For a conventional European train, the overturning speed on a curve of that radius would be around 170km/h, depending on the amount of banking, the vehicle centre of gravity and suspension parameters.

“It is reported that the speed limit was 80km/h and driver admitted to the rescue team that the train had been travelling at 190km/h. This is consistent with the above calculations. One would expect the train to derail at around this speed.

“The big question is why the train was running at more than twice the speed limit. As the driver was leaving the high-speed line to join a much slower route before entering the station, there must have been at least prominent visual warnings to reduce speed, if not audible warnings and an electronic speed supervision system. It has been reported that investigators are studying the possibility of a failure of the braking system or other equipment and, until this investigation is complete, it is not possible to say what caused this accident.”

SMC coverage

The Guardian (Roger Kemp)

The Guardian (Roger Kemp) – transport correspondent

The Independent (Roger Kemp)

Reuters (Roger Kemp)

Mirror (Roger Kemp)

Herald Scotland (Roger Kemp)

Yorkshire Post (Roger Kemp)

Flyover to cut delay minutes

Passenger trains have now begun using a flyover built at Hitchin to eliminate the need for services from London to Letchworth and Cambridge to cross the other three tracks of the East Coast Main Line on the level. Network Rail says that the 2km single track alignment, built at a cost of £47M, is expected to cut delays by nearly 30,000 minutes a year and create capacity for additional services. Other projects being undertaken to increase capacity on the ECML include: remodelling of the junctions at Shaftholme near Doncaster and Holgate near York; new platforms at Peterborough; and an upgrade of the Doncaster-Lincoln-Peterborough line to provide an alternative route for freight. (Item contains no further information.)

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 8, Aug. 2013. p.8.

Prototype commuter car

Reports that Japan Transport Engineering and Tokyo commuter operator Tokyu Corporation have begun testing a prototype Sustina lightweight stainless steel electric multiple-unit car. Developed for both domestic and export markets, the vehicle is undergoing trials in revenue service as part of a series 5050 EMU on the Tokyo Line. Sustina is intended to offer long service life and 'exceptionally high reliability' to avoid disruption on busy commuter routes. The laser-welded stainless steel body is watertight and does not require painting, and incorporates a lateral ceiling rollbar for high side impact crashworthiness. The lightweight design is up to 30% lighter than a mild steel design and equivalent to an aluminium-bodied vehicle.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 8, Aug. 2013. p.10.

Siemens pulls out of Crossrail bidding

Siemens has announced that it 'will not be proceeding further along the Crossrail rolling stock procurement process'. Along with Bombardier, CAF and Hitachi Rail Europe, Siemens had been invited in February 2012 to negotiate for a contract to provide around 600 EMU cars for the east-west cross London line. The company says that its withdrawal is a 'strategic decision that has been taken on current business activity levels'. It remains 'fully committed' to delivering signalling, communications and train control systems for Crossrail through its Rail Automation business, which was awarded contract C620 with Invensys Rail, now part of Siemens, in November 2012.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 8, Aug. 2013. p.14.

In search of global standards

Further steps towards the establishment of a 'global repository' for railway standards were taken at the UIC General Assembly on June 27 when members approved the overall strategy for the UIC Standardisation Platform. The strategy envisages the transformation of the existing UIC leaflets into a new portfolio of International Railway Standards, together with the establishment of new standards when necessary. Although the leaflets were developed primarily for Europe, where UIC had its origins, many of the standards were subsequently adopted by railways around the world. With the European Railways Agency now responsible for managing Technical Specifications for Interoperability within the European Union, UIC is keen to ensure that European standards do not drift out of line with the rest of the world, and vice-versa.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 8, Aug. 2013. p.24.

Define crash energy management needs early in procurement

The development of tighter crashworthiness standards in Europe, centred on EN15227, has led rolling stock designers to place more importance on energy absorption and vehicle protection measures. This renewed emphasis on vehicle structural integrity has led Oleo to develop its range of simulation and modelling tools to enable designers, component suppliers, rolling stock owners and train operators to gain a deeper understanding of issues surrounding crashworthiness. The company has a range of modelling options from one-dimensional simulation through to multi-body dynamic analysis in three dimensions and stresses the value of using its platforms early in the design process.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 8, Aug. 2013. pp.61-62.

Hitachi wins U.K. high-speed train car production bid

Reports that Hitachi has received an order to supply more than 270 train cars for an intercity line in the UK. The order includes maintenance service for 27 and a half years as well as production of the train cars to replace an aging fleet. Valued at £1.2bn, the order was received from the Department for Transport via a special-purpose company in which Hitachi is an investor. The train cars will run on the line from London to Inverness.

The Nikkei Weekly, vol. 51, no. 2,603, 29 July 2013. p.12.

Virgin calls for 135 mph running on West Coast Main Line

Virgin’s chief operating officer Chris Gibb has said that 135mph running on some sections of the West Coast Mainline is vital if rail is to challenge competition from the airlines and make best use of capacity. Although Pendolinos are capable of operating at 140mph - and this capability is being maintained by Alstom - to travel at this speed would require signalling alterations, whereas 135mph would present no such issues as drivers would still be able to see two sections ahead, which deals with any sighting problems. Mr Gibb said: 'We are pleased that Network Rail agrees with us in this instance and is working positively with us to deliver this change'. (Item contains no further information.)

www.globalrailnews.com. 1 Aug. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/pnckm7r

University of Huddersfield and rail industry forge a new strategic partnership

The University of Huddersfield and RSSB have signed a Memorandum of Understanding, sealing a deal to pool resources and talent for research into system and engineering risk modelling to support informed decision making and future risk prediction. Each organisation is putting in funding of £0.5M per year to fuel a £5M 5-year programme. Research will be carried out and new techniques developed to fill the gaps that are identified in system and engineering risk modelling, as well as issues around human capital, and educating the next generation of railway professionals.

RSSB Newsletter, July/Aug. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/os4spbg

Fatigue risk management

Fatigue is a common problem in everyday life; however, fatigue at work can impact on the performance of people who make the railway safe (e.g. drivers, signallers, depot and maintenance staff). Office of the Rail Regulator Guidance underpinning the Railway and other Guided Transport Systems Regulations (safety) 2006, advocates the introduction of Fatigue Risk Management Systems. Following the publication of this guidance RSSB held a Fatigue Forum in March 2011 bringing together companies from across the industry to learn how to better to manage fatigue. Now a second forum has been organised by a cross industry steering group. RSSB's research on managing road driver fatigue and associated support materials was launched and Network Rail presented their investigations into on-call worker fatigue. Additionally a range of companies presented their approaches to fatigue risk management systems.

RSSB Newsletter, July/Aug. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/os4spbg

Fyra V250 cancelled

SNCB (Belgium) and NS Hispeed (The Netherlands) have cancelled their joint order for 19 high speed trainsets from AnsaldoBreda after a review by a French consultancy indicated that the units would not be fit for purpose. The trainsets were to have been for services between Amsterdam and Brussels, and for within The Netherlands.

Railway Gazette International, vol.169, no.7. July 2013. p.12.

Thameslink order confirmed

The Cross-London Trains consortium has been awarded a firm contract by the UK Department for Transport for the finance, build and maintenance of all EMU cars and depots for the Thameslink Programme.

Railway Gazette International, vol.169, no.7. July 2013. p.12.

IGC grants DB access to Channel Tunnel

A Certificate B operating licence for the Channel Tunnel has been awarded to Deutsche Bahn by the Intergovernmental Commission. This paves the way for preparatory work before the introduction of high speed services between Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Köln and London, possibly commencing in 2016.

Railway Gazette International, vol.169, no.7. July 2013. p.12.

Network Rail awards £122m Crossrail contracts

Network Rail has awarded Carillion two Crossrail contracts worth around £122M. The Crossrail West Inner Track Improvements and Crossrail Old Oak Common and Paddington Approaches and Intercity Express Programme will prepare existing rail infrastructure along the route to accommodate future Crossrail trains. Carillion has said the projects will include 'design, track work, switches and crossings, overhead line and cable management, together with minor civil engineering works'.

www.globalrailnews.com. 3 July 2013. http://tinyurl.com/nhfn5hc

Bombardier to supply new Hamburg S-Bahn trains

S-Bahn, a subsidiary of DB Regio AG, has awarded Bombardier a contract for 60 new single and dual-voltage commuter trains. The order follows confirmation from the Hamburg Parliament that S-Bahn will continue to operate Hamburg's urban network for another 15 years from 2018. The single-voltage trains will run on the S-Bahn network, while the dual-voltage will operate on extensions to Hamburg's suburban regions - allowing direct services into the city centre for the first time. The contract, which has been valued at around euros 327M, includes an option for 86 additional trains up to 2018. The contract is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2018, with the first train due to be delivered in 2016. (Item contains no further information.)

www.globalrailnews.com. 1 July 2013. http://tinyurl.com/otbnky4

Deadly derailment won't stop oil on trains

A recent train derailment in Quebec, near the Maine border, has highlighted the danger of moving oil by rail. However, while the practice could be made safer, it won't be stopped. US and Canadian drillers are producing oil faster than new pipelines can be built. As a result, trains have become an unexpected yet vital way to move shipments from the continent's midsection to refineries along the coasts. Even safety experts worried about the dangers of shipping oil by rail acknowledge that the safety record of railroads is good - and improving.


First UK tram-train service to open in 2016

Transport Minister Norman Baker has signed a contract to deliver tram-trains to South Yorkshire. The new service, which is being run as part of a two-year trial of the technology, will operate between Rotherham Parkgate and Sheffield city centre from 2016. The specially-built tram-trains will connect Rotherham and Sheffield along a mix of light and heavy rail lines. If the pilot study is successful tram-trains could be rolled out across the country. The new vehicles, which are being built by Vossloh, will be dual voltage, taking into account any future plans to electrify the Midland Mainline.

www.globalrailnews.com. 21 June 2013. http://tinyurl.com/ozpeeb6

Testing new weld products at the Facility for Accelerated Service Testing

The head alloyed weld from Orgo-Thermit, Inc., which provides increased weld running surface hardness to match that of high strength rails, and the head defect repair (HDR) weld from Holland L.P./EWI, an electric flash railhead repair weld, were tested by the Transportation Technology Center, Inc; their report results are summarised.

Railway Track and Structures, vol.109, no.6. June 2013. pp.15-17.

Analyzing rail grinding patterns

The modelling of the rail grinding process, as the function of a single grinding motor and as multiple grinding motors in a range of patterns, is discussed. Two approaches are used - the 'closed form' mathematical representation of the rail head as defined by AREMA, and the digitised rail profile as used by a profile measurement system.

Railway Track and Structures, vol.109, no.6. June 2013. pp.46,48,50,52.

BS EN 13231-1:2013 Railway applications. Track. Acceptance of works. Works on ballasted track. Plain fine switches and crossings. (Supersedes BS EN 13231-1 and -2:2006)
[BSI] Update Standards. July 2013. p.11.
BS EN 13231-4:2013 Railway applications. Track. Acceptance of works. Acceptance of reprofiling rails in switches and crossings
[BSI] Update Standards. July 2013. p.11.
EN 15085-1:2007+A1:2013 Railway applications. Welding of railway vehicles and components. General
[BSI] Update Standards. July 2013. p.42.

Network Rail told by regulator to cut costs by £2bn

Network Rail has been told by the rail regulator that it must find savings of £2bn over the next five years at the same time as improving punctuality. But the Office of Rail Regulation (ORR) said the cost cuts must not come at the expense of safety. It said at least nine out of 10 trains must run on time on all routes by 2019. Network Rail welcomed the plans and said it would respond in September after analysing the findings. Last week the ORR said Network Rail had missed all of its punctuality targets for England and Wales last year. The figures came a day after it was revealed that the company's net debt had reached more than £30bn. If Network Rail keeps missing punctuality targets, it faces a fine of up to £75m from the ORR. The company is held responsible for delays caused by signal failures or relating to problems with train tracks.

BBC News online, 12th June 2013.

Composite railroad ties multiply in metro commuter rail line

AXION has announced several new contracts for its ECOTRAX rail ties, the latest being from a Metrorail system in Florida. Due to Miami's coastal tropical climate, rail ties are exposed to hostile conditions that include very high levels of rainfall, sun exposure and sea salt, as well as termites. Traditional wood rail ties offer a shorter service life in this environment and ECOTRAX is designed to be an alternative that offers both environmental benefits and a higher financial return on investment due to the ties' much longer service life and performance capabilities.

Composites Technology, June 2013. p.10. http://ct.epubxp.com/title/9556

Maglev dream floats closer to reality

Information about the development of the Maglev train in Japan, and the schedule being put together to get the train operating in Japan, with the intention that a line will be ready between Tokyo and Nagoya by 2027, extending to Osaka by 2045.

The Nikkei Weekly, vol.51. no.2,590. 29 Apr. 2013. p.29.

Overground order for Bombardier

Transport for London has placed an £88M order with Bombardier for 57 new Overground rail carriages. The vehicles, which will be built in Derby, will increase all remaining Class 378 trains from four to five carriages on all but one Overground route - the Gospel Oak to Barking line which will remain diesel powered.

www.globalrailnews.com. 7 May 2013. http://tinyurl.com/butjf8f

DB signs framework order for 450 Bombardier locomotives

Deutsche Bahn has signed a framework agreement with Bombardier that could see the delivery of 450 TRAXX locomotives between now and 2023. The new locomotives will be split across DB's operations, with 110 confirmed for DB Schenker and 20 for DB Regio passenger services. The locomotives, which have a potential operating speed of 189 km per hour, can be manufactured with a Last Mile Diesel Engine, which allows the electric vehicles to run on non-electrified sections of track. The agreement is still subject to the approval.

www.globalrailnews.com. 7 May 2013. http://tinyurl.com/mlrabfm

AVE in France

A RENFE Service 100 high speed trainset undertook trial running at 300 km/h on LGV Est between Paris and Lorraine-TGV station during the week of March 18th. No dates have been announced for the operation of AVE trainsets into France, but they are initially expected to be deployed on services from Barcelona to Toulouse, and later to Lyon. (Item contains no further information).

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 4, Apr. 2013. p.7.

Unified law to boost freight

A declaration expressing willingness to create a common legal regime for rail traffic across Asia and Europe has been signed by 37 countries at a recent meeting in Geneva. The aim is to establish a 'unified set of transparent and predictable' legal conditions for international rail freight transport 'from the Atlantic to the Pacific', equivalent to the regimes for road, air and water transport. The general conditions of transport for Euro-Asian rail transport, GTC EurAsia, would include a common consignment note and 'to the extent possible' a single liability regime.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 4, Apr. 2013. p.7.

Crossrail operator sought

Transport for London has invited expressions of interest in the Crossrail operating concession. The concession would run for eight years, with a possible 31 month extension, and would be similar to the existing London Overground inner-suburban contract, with TfL specifying service levels, hours of operation and staffing. TfL expects to appoint an operator by late 2014. In May 2015 the concessionaire would take over stopping services between London Liverpool Street and Shenfield. The concessionaire may also be required to operate services on routes further out to Reading and/or Ebbsfleet, and from London Liverpool Street to Chingford, Enfield Town and Cheshunt.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 4, Apr. 2013. p.14.

Transport for London

Transport for London's Rail for London subsidiary has awarded Bombardier a euros 88.5M firm order to supply 57 cars to lengthen the London Overground Class 378 EMU fleet from four to five cars. (Item contains no further information).

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 4, Apr. 2013. p.19.

European rail business sold

Balfour Beatty has announced plans to dispose of all of its mainland European rail businesses. This follows a review which had concluded that maintaining a rail presence in the region was not consistent with the company's strategy of building a strong local presence in a number of sectors, given that in mainland Europe it operates essentially only in rail. As a first step in the divestment, the Spanish business has been sold to its management team, with the remainder to follow 'through a process that ensures that the businesses and their customers continue to receive full support'. The company has recognised a non-underlying cost of $104M in respect of the sale, including a $95M goodwill impairment comprising $80M in respect of the German business, $12M for Scandinavia and $3M for Spain.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 4, Apr. 2013. p.22.

A vision of rail in 2050

Reports on 'Challenge 2050', a high-level vision of the future shape of rail transport which was recently launched in Brussels. It outlines the sector's 'shared perception' of what Europe's railways could look like in the future. It is intended to 'orient and guide' policymakers and other stakeholders and companies across the railway operating community and supply sector, encouraging them to 'enable the innovation and investment on which sustainable mobility in Europe depends'. Challenge 2050 identifies a range of high-level goals for a business-led rail sector, covering: value for money; performance; safety & security; consistency; capacity; connectivity; sustainable development; and people.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 4, Apr. 2013. p.30.

Feast and famine continues

Although the introduction of private finance was expected to see new train procurement freed from public spending constraints, the 20 years following rail privatisation have seen two major periods where no orders were placed, with a third now looming. Details the history of procurement and examines how turbulence continues to characterise the market. While official policy holds that the government should not specify and procure rolling stock, the Department for Transport cannot avoid involvement since it is responsible for funding the additional costs through the franchise agreements. In addition, only the government can provide the cross-franchise strategic overview and act where urgent decisions are needed. Presents a table with current and prospective CP5 rolling stock orders.

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 4, Apr. 2013. pp.51-55.

Bertling joins Bombardier

Lutz Bertling has been named as the next President & Chief Operating Officer of Bombardier Transportation. He is currently President & CEO of EADS subsidiary Eurocopter Group and will take up his new duties on June 3rd. He succeeds André Navarri, who will remain as Strategic Advisor to Bombardier Inc President & CEO Pierre Beaudoin for a further year before retiring. Meanwhile, Grego Peters has stepped down from Bombardier Transportation's Management Board. He has headed up the Germany & Scandinavia business unit within the company's Passenger Division since 2010. (Item contains no further information).

Railway Gazette International, vol. 169, no. 4, Apr. 2013. p.64.

Batteries included

Research workers from TRL and Lloyds Register have reported on the feasibility of designing battery-powered trains. In work sponsored by the Department for Transport, the team examines two issues: the technological means of onboard electrical storage to meet the energy and power requirements of selected case study routes; and the conceptual design of a mechanical system for rapidly exchanging discharged batteries with charged units at stations. If the approach proves positive, battery powering could provide an alternative to diesel traction. The investigation concluded that battery-powered traction is feasible when a suitable battery is paired with a super capacitor or flywheel to deliver the power peaks required to accelerate the train and cope with gradients along the route.

Railway Strategies, issue 77, Feb./Mar. 2013. p.33.

High speed rail

On January 28th, the Secretary of State for Transport Patrick McLoughlin announced the HS2 phase two route which will link Birmingham with Manchester, the East Midlands, Sheffield and Leeds. Provides his written statement and comments by interested parties including the Association of Train Operating Companies, the Rail Freight Group, Network Rail and the Transport for Greater Manchester Committee. Also provides a map showing Britain's future high speed rail network and linking compatible services.

Railway Strategies, issue 77, Feb./Mar. 2013. pp.36-38.

Responding to the challenges of Britain's growing railway

Reports on Network Rail's Strategic Business Plan which will spend $37.5bn on the infrastructure to boost capacity at key points on the network and provide extra commuter seats at peak times. The plan also sets out the need to future-proof infrastructure against the impact of changing weather conditions, including more frequent flooding, and to enable more rail freight by upgrading strategic routes to accommodate bigger freight containers. Details the plans, individual projects and schemes.

Railway Strategies, issue 77, Feb./Mar. 2013. pp.44-45.

NSARE publishes skills forecasting report

In March 2012 the National Skills Academy Railway Engineering was commissioned by the Office of Rail Regulation to undertake a Skills Forecasting exercise to quantify the skills challenges facing the rail industry. This was to encompass the requirements of Network Rail, Transport for London, Crossrail, HS2, Light Rail, and all their railway engineering supply chains. Details the objectives of the project and its subsequent activities, as well as the response of the industry. Notes that NSARE has submitted a bid to the Department for Business Innovation & Skills, in conjunction with Siemens, for a National Training Academy for Traction & Rolling Stock.

Railway Strategies, issue 77, Feb./Mar. 2013. p.49.

Moving forward on freight

Presents an interview with Maggie Simpson, the new had of the Rail Freight Group. She outlines the three main parts of RFG's role in the industry - to influence policy, to help mentor companies and to try to raise awareness of rail freight. She comments on developments in the UK rail market which could impact on freight, highlighting those which are positive and those which are disappointing. She goes on to stress that the uptake of rail freight is increasing and that it is not just about 'moving coal and stone'.

Railway Strategies, issue 77, Feb./Mar. 2013. pp.50-52.

Charging ahead

Researchers at the University of Huddersfield's Institute of Railway Research are making an impact on the costs of operating railway freight vehicles. A research project initiated by Network Rail and the Office of Rail Regulation will see techniques developed by the IRR used to inform the levels of track access charges paid to NR by freight vehicles operating in the UK. The project employs mathematical modelling of freight vehicle dynamics to determine levels of track damage due to a vehicle's dynamic ride forces. By developing a ride force counting metric and collaborating with NR economists, the IRR proceeded to generate a cost model and software program called RFCpro. This program allows vehicle manufacturers and operators to readily calculate levels of track access charges for their new vehicles.

Railway Strategies, issue 77, Feb./Mar. 2013. p.53.

Mail by rail

Reports on the integration of 'freight' into the passenger services operated by East Midlands trains between Nottingham and London as part of the 'Mail by rail' partnership between EMT and supply chain management company 5PL. The service is a fully managed door-to-door offer with courier partners employed at either end of the route to load/unload the trains and effect collection and delivery from and to customers. Notes that being greener and offering savings over road based courier operations is attractive to organisations. Concludes that EMT and 5PL have proven that it is possible to utilise marginal capacity on passenger trains for the movement of freight and have done so in a way that has produced a revenue stream for EMT without impacting on the railway operation or passengers.

Railway Strategies, issue 77, Feb./Mar. 2013. pp.58-59.

Rail industry sets out future potential requirements for trains and carriages

Discusses a recent report from the rail industry - Long Term Passenger Rolling Stock Strategy for the Rail Industry - which marks a key step towards a market-led approach for delivering rolling stock which meets passengers' needs over the next 30 years. The analysis suggests that a near doubling of the fleet could be needed by 2042. At the heart of the growth is a requirement for between 13,000 and 19,000 new electric vehicles. It adds that while the electrification programme proceeds there would be no requirement for any new diesel or hybrid rolling stock other than for limited capacity purposes. Concludes that rolling stock related costs per vehicle mile can be reduced in real terms as a result of these changes because the costs of leasing, maintenance and energy for new electric vehicles are substantially lower that the costs for comparable new diesel vehicles.

Railway Strategies, issue 77, Feb./Mar. 2013. p.72.

Electric boom for the rolling stock market: the long-term strategy

Reports on the Long Term Passenger Rolling Stock Strategy which aims to set out the likely passenger rolling stock requirements in the UK over the next 30 years. Impacts on rolling stock numbers by way of electrification, HS2, projected passenger demand and existing fleet renewal have been considered. A number of key themes have emerged from the Strategy: the costs of the industry as a whole need to be reduced; rolling stock costs should not be seen in isolation; the Department for Transport's role in relation to rolling stock should be significantly reduced; and a 'reinvigorated' franchising programme is the best was to deliver substantial fleet investment and secure value for money. The strategy also places emphasis on electrifying more of Britain's railways.

Railway Strategies, issue 77, Feb./Mar. 2013. p.73.

Publically minded

Reports on developments in transport services offered by Transports Public Genevois which operates trams, trolleybuses and buses and whose network covers the Greater Geneva area. Although a publically owned, monopoly public transport operator with no competition the company still has to adopt a commercial mindset in order to satisfy the requirements set out in its service agreement with the State of Geneva. Notes that the tpg fleet will see the arrival of 19 new Tango trams from Stadler, with a further 13 on order to be delivered progressively from 2014. The design concept incorporates an innovative new prototype supercapacitor battery which offers substantial benefits in reducing energy consumption by recovering braking energy. The system also allows the tram to move independently without an external power supply over a certain distance, for example in the case of breakage of the contact line.

Railway Strategies, issue 77, Feb./Mar. 2013. pp.123,125.

Evaluation of switch point and stock rail profiles for heavy-axle-loads

A series of tests, carried out by the Transportation Technology Center, Inc., to evaluate methods of reducing stock rail metal flow and switch point fatigue in turnouts are described. Switch point chipping and rolling contact fatigue were reduced by running surface profile changes and the development of these are discussed.

Railway Track and Structures, vol.109, no.4. April 2013. pp.12-17.

Suspension bridges: Concepts and various innovative techniques of structural evaluation

Following a review of why suspension bridges fail, the use of advanced NDT methods to detect potential problems is discussed.

Railway Track and Structures, vol.109, no.4. April 2013. pp.27-28,30.

Automated phased array ultrasonic inspection system for rail wheel sets

The design, system automation, calibration and validation of an automated ultrasonic system for the inspection of new and in service wheel set assemblies from diesel-electric locomotives and gondola cars is reported. The system uses Phased Array transducers for flaw detection and Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducers for the measurement of residual stresses. The data gathered is archived for future comparisons and trending.

Non-Destructive Testing Australia, vol.50, no.2. March/April 2013. pp.44-48.

Increased investment in high speed rail drives demand for composites - Frost & Sullivan

A new report from Frost & Sullivan - Global Opportunities for Plastics and Composites in High Speed Rail - states that increased investment in new high speed rail lines is creating growth opportunities for plastics and composites manufacturers. OEMs are likely to incorporate larger quantities of composites in new rolling stock as a result of benefits such as lower life-time cost, significant weight reduction potential and higher strength-to-weight ratio. However, the high cost of composites compared to metals, lack of proper joining techniques, absence of standardisation (in terms of material grade), and poor reparability and recyclability all threaten to limit the penetration of composites in HSR applications.

Reinforced Plastics Newsletter, issue 480, 17 Apr. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/d3m7vjg

Bombardier wins Florida SunRail contract

Reports that Bombardier has been awarded a $195M operations and maintenance contract for Florida's SunRail service. The contract includes a 10-year maintenance agreement for the route's new fleet of 20 Bombardier BiLevel commuter rail cars. Bombardier's scope of work for the SunRail commuter rail service will include operations, dispatching, fleet maintenance, track maintenance, customer service, station platform and facility maintenance, and material supply.

www.rail.co. 19 Apr. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/cy7h8v3

Future of rail travel: SkyTran

For the US and the UK, the future of national rail travel is high-speed, but there are concepts in various stages of development that could revolutionise not only how we use rail systems to move across cities but how we move around the world. This article looks at a system developed in part by NASA, which aims to harness maglev technology to transport personal travel pods at speeds of 150 mph around vast metropolitan areas. SkyTran sees itself as the future of mass transit, claiming to be almost completely carbon neutral and around the third of the price of HSR. The vision is for passengers to be able to board a pod, type in where they want to go and be transported quickly and comfortably to their destination without needing to use scheduled services or suffer crowded carriages.

www.rail.co. 22 Mar. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/buegzqs

Long-distance rail study launched

Network Rail has begun a consultation into the future of long-distance rail services in the UK. The Long Distance Market Study will inform the development of long-distance rail travel over the next 10 to 30 years. Richard Eccles, Network Rail's head of strategic planning, said: 'The goals of our study are to identify where rail can have the biggest effect on three key areas - namely enabling economic growth, improving people's quality of life and reducing the impact of travel on the environment. Rail has a unique ability to offer fast and efficient connectivity for businesses and communities, while also being a greener, less carbon hungry form of travel. Only by planning many years ahead will we be able to keep trains moving and meet demand'. (Item contains no further information).

www.rail.co. 27 Mar. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/bolvm7r

ATC wins final major Crossrail construction contract

Alstom, TSO and Costain (ATC) has been awarded the final major construction contract for Crossrail. The joint venture will fit out London's new rail tunnels with 40km of track, overhead power equipment and ventilation and drainage systems. The contract includes a commitment to provide apprenticeships and job opportunities for Londoners along the route. By late 2014, the construction of over 21km of twin-bore tunnel, stretching across the capital via central London and Docklands, will have been completed. To-date over 7 km of new tunnel has been constructed under London.

www.rail.co. 2 Apr. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/d4c5b9p

Britain's railway named Europe's most improved

Research led by the European Commission has shown that Britain outperformed all 27 EU member states when comparing the progression of each country's rail network since the 1990s, beating Germany (7th), France (10th) and Italy (23rd). Britain performed particularly well in safety, passenger satisfaction and recorded the highest modal shift to rail from other modes of transport. The study did, however, show a significant increase in the cost of rail travel since 2000, with prices in Britain up 34% compared with 16% in Germany and 10% in France.

www.rail.co. 2 Apr. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/c3jl8e2

Heavy-axle-load revenue service mega site testing: 2005-2012

Long term tests carried out by the US Transportation Technology Center, Inc (TTCI) designed to investigate issues such as derailment related to broken rails, weld defects, large wheel/rail forces due to adverse track geometry and track buckling related to longitudinal stresses in continuous welded rail are summarised. Conclusions and findings drawn from field test results and statistical analysis are discussed. The tests are part of a joint Association of American Railroads (AAR) and the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) project to determine the effects of heavy-axle-load (HAL) on track infrastructure.

Railway Track and Structures, vol. 109, no.3. March 2013. pp.13-18.

Siemens handed Crossrail communications systems contract

Siemens has been awarded a £43M Crossrail contract for the central section communications and control systems. The scope of works includes the design, testing, installation and commissioning of key communications and control systems within Crossrail's central section including CCTV and public address systems at stations, customer information displays, staff and emergency services radio systems and the data networks that will carry information to and from the route control centre. The contract also includes commitments to provide apprenticeships and job opportunities for Londoners.

www.rail.co. 19 Mar. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/cq9mxa8

Crossrail trains to be 100% publicly funded

The government has announced that Crossrail rolling stock will now be fully funded by the taxpayer. The public sector contribution will increase from £350M to £1bn. The move is intended to ensure that the project remains on schedule to commence passenger services in 2018 as originally planned, following a delay in the procurement process. A deal will need to be reached for the new trains in 2014 if delivery and testing is to be completed in time.

www.rail.co. 1 Mar. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/d69ycff

Balfour Beatty confirms sale of European rail business

Balfour Beatty has said it plans to sell off its rail business in mainland Europe at the same time as announcing a 7% fall in underlying profit. The company's 2012 figures showed just a 1% fall in revenue at £10.9bn but an underlying profit of £309M. The report also confirmed that the company's cost-cutting programme is on track to save £80M by 2015, with £36M of savings achieved at a non-underlying cost of £61M in 2012. Reported profits were down 70%, in part due to a £104M loss and a £95M goodwill write down caused by the restructuring of its European rail operations.

www.rail.co. 7 Mar. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/blfuecw

Smarter cities are on the move

Comments on the development of new metro lines around the world. Delhi Metro Rail will add another 180 km of route by the end of 2016, including two orbital lines, almost doubling the size of today's network. A recent survey showed that 17 Chinese cities now have metros in operation, with another 13 under construction and up to 20 more cities actively planning their first routes. With more than half of the world's population now living in cities, says that it is clear that investment in urban rail is continuing to accelerate. The International Association of Public Transport (UITP) says that, although projects such as new metro lines can be costly, the cost of improving urban mobility is lower than the direct cost of congestion.

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. p.3.

DFC construction contract

Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India has awarded the first major contract for construction of the Eastern DFC, an electrified high-capacity freight route suitable for speeds of 100 km/h and 32.5 tonne axleloads which is being developed to ease congestion on the roads on the Delhi-Kolkata axis. A joint venture of Tata Projects India and Spanish partner Aldesa is to design and build the initial 343 km double-track Kanpur-Khurja section under the Rs33bn contract announced in January.

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. p.10.

Franchising revived

The government has announces its plans to restart three bidding competitions put on hold after 'significant errors' led to the collapse of the InterCity West Coast process. An interim Essex Thameside contract of up to two years is to be agreed with incumbent National Express, and a revised invitation to tender for a 15-yr franchise is to be issued to shortlisted bidders in the summer. FirstGroup's Great Western franchise has been extended to October, and negotiations are under way for an additional two years. FirstGroup's existing Thameslink-Great Northern franchise is being extended by 28 weeks beyond September 14, and could be extended for a further two years.

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. p.12.

Rolling stock strategy

Great Britain's passenger fleet might need to double by 2042 to accommodate increased ridership, electrification and other proposed enhancements, according to the Long Term Passenger Rolling Stock Strategy for the Rail Industry, published by the Association of Train Operating Companies, Network Rail and leasing companies Angel Trains, Eversholt and Porterbrook. There is a potential requirement for up to 19,000 new electric vehicles by 2042, compared with 8,500 currently in operation. A steady train building programme would be beneficial for the supply industry, but the report says that this is unlikely to occur because procurement will be linked to franchise awards.

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. p.12.

London lengthening approved

Transport for London has approved a £320M programme of rolling stock procurement and infrastructure works to extend London Overground's 57 Class 378 EMUs from four to five cars. TfL is negotiating with Class 378 manufacturer Bombardier and QW Leasing for the supply of the additional cars, which would be leased until 2027. Following a significant increase in ridership on the Overground network, demand is forecast to rise by another 25% by 2021. TfL warned that this would lead to 'widespread, severe overcrowding' if not addressed.

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. p.15.

Metrolink expansion

Reports that another 6.3 km extension of Manchester's light rail network opened for revenue service on February 11. While existing routes make extensive use of former railway formations, the East Manchester Line includes a significant section of street running. Work is in hand on a further 3.9 km to Ashton-under-Lyme, which is expected to open in 2014. Transport for Greater Manchester expects to complete its £1.4bn Metrolink expansion programme by the end of 2016.

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. p.16.


HS2 has appointed Mott MacDonald to provide engineering services for the east leg of high speed 2 Phase II (£3.2M), AECOM for the west leg (£3.1M) and Arup to provide environmental services (£1.1M). (Item contains no further information).

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. p.18.

Formula One flywheel test

Reports that Alstom Transport has signed an exclusive agreement to test Williams hybrid power flywheel energy storage technology on a Citadfis tram. The composite rotor flywheel technology was originally developed for the 2009 Wiliams Formula One car. It has since been used on London buses, and offers energy savings of up to 15% by recovering braking energy normally lost as heat. Trials will start in 2014, with a view to installing a prototype system on an existing vehicle by the end of that year. (Item contains little further information).

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. p.21.

Good but not completely satisfactory year

Siemens President and CEO Peter Loscher has said that 'fiscal 2012 was a good year but not a completely satisfactory year for us'. The company suffered from uncertainties in the global economy, substantial charges in the energy sector and problems with specific projects. These included delays to the delivery of Velaro trains. Loscher said that 'we do share part of the responsibility for that'.

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. p.22.


French infrastructure manager RFF is planning to spend euros 520M on track renewals on the Narbonne-Nimes and Carcassonne-Castelnaudary main lines in Languedoc-Rousillion in 2014-19. (Item contains no further information).

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. p.30.

Compromise unlocks Fourth Railway Package

Reports that the European Commission has unveiled the draft Fourth Railway Package which includes 'a comprehensive package of measures to deliver better quality and more choice in railway services. The Package is split into four areas: standards and approvals; domestic passenger liberalisation; independent infrastructure management; and ensuring a skilled workforce. Publication has been delayed by opposition from member states opposed to full vertical separation and unbundling of their national railway holding groups, most notably Germany.

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. p.30.

Running a railway at its limit

The southern part of the West Coast Main Line has been plagued by unreliability since the completion of a £9bn upgrading programme in 2009. An unprecedented pan-industry collaboration involving infrastructure manager Network Rail and the route's nine operators has produced a detailed report outlining the root causes of the problem. The report offers 17 recommendations across eight thematic areas, which together should offer a 21% reduction in delay times. The eight themes are: prioritisation and improved understanding of delay categories; suicide prevention; track condition monitoring; NR organisation; accommodation for front-line staff; procurement policy; future maintenance strategy; and regulation and enforcement action.

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. pp.32-35.

Develop a data spine to optimise maintenance

Says that managing the interface between routine maintenance, infrastructure enhancement and asset degradation trends is a challenge for many railways, but development of a comprehensive 'data spine' could help to foster commercially-focused high-availability networks. Adds that there are clear efficiencies to be gained over the long term of a general data store using either actual or 'visible' asset data. Once a data spine has been established in a useable form, it can be deployed to create the analytical tools which allow the infrastructure manager to introduce route-based maintenance management assessment which meets the needs of each particular discipline.

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. pp.36-38.

Developing the high-speed train of 2035

Researchers at Germany's DLR Institute are working on a commercially viable high-speed train design for the 2030s. The double-deck NGT EMU, which is intended for 400 km/h operation, would consume just half the energy of current designs. Final results are expected by 2018. Eight criteria are to be met by the final design. While the top operating speed is set at 400 km/h, the specific energy demand per passenger-km should be half that of an ICE3 with its 300 km/h maximum operating speed. A cost-efficient modular construction method is to be employed, with a strong focus on reducing life-cycle costs. The researchers will also address issues relating to the timescale and effectiveness of the R&D and vehicle approval processes. The reductions in journey times could enable the train to be competitive with air travel over distances of 400 to 800 kilometres.

Railway Gazette International, Mar. 2013. pp.58-60.

Alstom warns of West Coast hiatus job losses

Alstom has warned that the two-year hiatus before a new West Coast franchise is let could lead to the loss of around 500 jobs across the rail industry. Scrapping the franchise contest means that there is now no contract for interior refits, all franchise bidders had identified £50M needed to carry out this work, meaning that not only may interiors become tired looking but skilled craftsmen will have to be laid off. Included in the 500 are 40 top-class engineers, who have just completed the Pendolino overhauls, who will have to go because there is no work to bridge the gap between now and the next West Coast franchise being let. Alstom have said the cost of re-starting teams and developing new product further down the line will be in the region of £20-30M, pointing out that £3M has already been spent on design and pre-engineering work for Baby Pendolinos.

www.rail.co. 19 Feb. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/bvaela6

HS2 awards Phase Two design contracts

Reports on the award of engineering design contracts for the second phase of HS2 to connect Birmingham with Manchester and Leeds. The contracts, which cover initial concept engineering designs and environmental services, are the first to be announced for the project's northern route. AECOM and Mott MacDonald will deliver engineering services for the west and east leg of the route respectively - in deals worth a combined £6.3M - and Arup will examine the environmental impact of the scheme. Concepts for Phase Two will form the basis of HS2's proposals ahead of consultation later this year.

www.rail.co. 20 Feb. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/c9yzgkr

European rail travel to grow 21% by 2020

Research by Amadeus Rail predicts that passenger rail traffic across Europe will increase by 21% by 2020. Long-distance passengers volumes will reach more than 1.36bn by 2020. The UK will play a big part in the increase, contributing 70M passengers to the total European market growth of 238M passengers between 2011 and 2020. Key factors are expected to include the liberalisation of European markets, completion of high-speed lines and relative cost of the railway.

www.rail.co. 25 Feb. 2013, http://tinyurl.com/cg9gtsp

A neural network approach for locomotive-based track inspection

The Neural Network models developed by the US Transportation Technology Center, Inc., which identify track geometry deviations by predicting the likely freight wagon responses via a vehicle/track interaction (VTI) system mounted on the locomotive, are described. Methodology, model results and future use are discussed.

Railway Track and Structures, vol.109, no.2. Feb.2013. pp.11-14.

Advances in rail measurement

Fast, mobile surveying systems for capturing rail data are reviewed with reference to productivity and accuracy.

Railway Track and Structures, vol.109, no.2. Feb.2013. pp.27-29.

Report highlights need to expand Britain's electric train fleet

A new report says that Britain will need as few as 400 to 800 new non-electric rail vehicles between now and 2042. An industry-led rolling stock strategy has suggested that the country's fleet of electric vehicles will need to be doubled in the next 30 years to handle projected demand, improved infrastructure and a larger electrified network. The standout figure suggests that between 13,000 to 19,000 new electric vehicles will need to be built by 2042 - the equivalent of delivering eight to 12 carriages every week for the next 30 years. The group carrying out the research included the Association of Train Operating Companies, the three main train leasing companies - Angel Trains, Eversholt Rail Group and Porterbrook Leasing - and Network Rail.

www.rail.co. 12 Feb. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/bmqeg3v

EU backs phase two of Rhine-Rhône high-speed line

The European Union has announced funding for technical, socio-economic and archaeological studies to be carried out for the second phase of the Rhine-Rhône high-speed line in France. The EU will put forward euros 5M to fund the studies, which will tackle the alignment of the rail section, the preparation of tender documents, and the identification of the necessary rail equipment, as well as analysing the socio-economic and archaeological impact of the future works. The first phase of the eastern section, which connects Villers-les-Pots (to the east of Dijon) with Petit-Croix (north-east of Belfort), was inaugurated in 2011. The project is due to be completed by the end of 2014.

www.rail.co. 13 Feb. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/abe93wc

'India needs high-speed rail' - Bansal

Indian Railways Minister Pawan Bansal has stressed his desire to see high-speed rail projects get underway in the country while speaking at the International Seminar on High Speed Trains in New Delhi. He said 'The rapid urbanisation, growing economy, rising level of educated work force with higher levels of income has caused greater growth in intercity travel both for business and personal reasons and high-speed train services may be required to fulfil the demand gap for faster intercity and inter-regional movement of passenger traffic'. Bansal pointed out that six corridors have been identified for techno-economic feasibility studies. The pre-feasibility reports have shown that these identified corridors are at various stages of preparation and study. The Indian government has already identified the Mumbai-Ahmedabad high-speed corridor, as the pilot project of this kind and this project needs an estimated $12.5bn of investment.

www.rail.co. 14 Feb. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/bzvk3hn

On track to transform Europe's rail industry: Part 2

Looks at the use of composites in rail infrastructure such as bridges, sleepers and platforms. Says that in the railway infrastructure the benefits of composites are clearly noticeable, because of the absence of rust and other signs of corrosion. Details case studies of a number of composite bridges that have been installed by Network Rail. Work by consultants Optima Projects suggests that composite bridges have advantages over the traditional metal design: significantly reduced mass; superior durability - less maintenance, disruption and through-life cost; new aesthetic possibilities with complex moulded forms; offsite construction reducing time and disruption on site; longer clear span - less impact on space below; and overall cost reduction, especially through-life.

Reinforced Plastics Newsletter, issue 476, 20 Feb. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/aovqhfw

EDF Energy to supply low carbon electricity for British rail network

EDF Energy has signed a ten-year deal to supply low carbon electricity for Britain's growing electrified rail network. Under the agreement signed with Network Rail, EDF Energy will supply about 3.2TWh of electricity per year to power a network which carries over three million passengers a day. Network Rail chief executive David Higgins stated that the partnership with EDF Energy will make rail a greener form of public transport in Britain.

EBR Utilities Retail - Weekly Newsletter, January 16 2013

£37.5bn rail investment plan submitted to the ORR

Network Rail has set out its £37.5bn investment plan for control period 5. Launching the 2014-19 business plan, it said the cost of operating Britain's railway was becoming cheaper as the organisation becomes more efficient, from £12.6bn in CP3 to £10.7bn in CP5. It plans to reduce the public's contribution to the railway's funding to between £2.6bn and £2.9bn, down from £4.5 in 2009. Details individual infrastructure investment projects by region.

www.rail.co. 8 Jan. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/a328yde

Broken rail incidents on the East Coast Main Line

The Rail Accident Investigation Branch is investigating a number of rail breaks that have recently occurred on the East Coast Main Line. These include: a vertical rail break that was discovered on a section of continuously welded rail, after a member of public had reported unusual levels of noise as trains passed over a stretch of line near Corby Glen, Lincolnshire (14 September 2012); and an approximate 100mm gap due to a broken rail at an insulated block joint on the Up Main line at Copmanthorpe, near York, that was reported by the driver of a train on the adjacent line (28 November 2012). The investigation will identify the sequence of events associated with each incident and will consider the systems that were place to detect flaws in the rails and/or defective track geometry, the actions taken in response to any known defects and the steps taken to repair failures that have already been reported.

Rail Accident Investigation Branch. Publication RAIB 120914. 9 Jan.2013. http://tinyurl.com/bbwsho8

New line connects Madrid and Barcelona with French border

Reports on the opening of a new 131 km high-speed rail line between Barcelona and Figueres which completes an 804 km high-speed network, connecting Madrid with Barcelona and the French border. Renfe will operate nine trains each day between Figueres and Barcelona, of which eight will continue to Madrid, and two will link up with French high-speed TGV services to Paris. The project has included the redevelopment of the Barcelona Sants and Girona railway stations and construction of the new Figueres-Vilafant station. A detailed guide to the construction of the Barcelona-Figueres high-speed line can be found on the Adif website.

www.rail.co. 9 Jan. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/ap9zlam

European Commission finances Italian high-speed rail projects

Two major rail infrastructure projects in northern Italy are to receive euros 10M from the European Union to progress work on a trans-European line between Lyon and the Ukrainian border. The investment will partly fund construction of two tunnels just outside of Brescia on the Turin-Milan-Verona-Padua high-speed line and the upgrading of Milan's train control centre. Once complete, the railway axis will connect France, Italy, Slovenia and Hungary, crossing the Alps between Lyon and Turin.

www.rail.co. 10 Jan. 2013. http://tinyurl.com/azqopby

AWS D15.2/D15.2M:2013 Recommended practices for the welding of rails and related rail components for use by rail vehicles
Welding Journal, vol.92, no.1. Jan.2013. p.76.