A study by Jacobs Engineering Group, Ernst & Young Orenda Corporate Finance and Canadian Nuclear Laboratories for transport authority Metrolinx has reported that it would be 'technically and economically feasible' to operate Toronto's future Regional Express Rail passenger services using hydrogen fuel cells instead of conventional overhead electrification. However, while the life-cycle costs would be similar, the use of hydrogen would be a 'world first' on such a large scale, leading to potential risks. The RER project envisages transforming the current GO Transit network to provide 'all-day two-way' passenger services across the Greater Toronto area from 2025, and had recommended 25 kV 60 Hz electrification in line with similar networks in Europe.
Railway Gazette International, Apr. 2018. pp.22-23.